Combined State / Upper Subordinate Services (PCS) Examination

Syllabus for Main (Written) Examination Pertaining to the Combined State / Upper Subordinate Services (General Recruitment / Physically Handicapped-Backlog / Special Recruitment) Examination and Assistant Conservator of Forest / Range Forest Officer Services Examination both.

Syllabus for Main (Written) Examination

OPTIONAL SUBJECT:

ANTHROPOLOGY

PAPER-I

1.1 Anthropology: Its meaning, scope and development.
1.2 Relationship with other disciplines: History, Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Political Science, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology: their scope and relevance.

2.1 Human Evolution and emergence of Man: Organic Evolution; Theories of evolution- Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post- Darwinian Period. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution.
2.2 Principles of systematic and taxonomy: Major primate taxa, Systematics of Hominoidea and Hominidae; Comparative Anatomy of man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
2.3 Origin and Evolution of Man: Phylogenetic status, characteristics and distribution of the following: Prepleistocence fossil primate-Oreopithecus, South and East African Hominids Pleasianthropus, Australopithecus africanus, plesianthropus,Australopithecus robustus and related species.

3.1 Emergence of Homo: Homo erectus and contemporaries
3.2 Neanderthal Man in Europe: La-Chapelle-aux-Saints (Classical type). Mt. Carmelites (Progressive type).
3.3 Rhodesian man.
3.4 Homo sapiens sapiens (Upper Pleistocene), Cromagnon Man, Chancelade and Grimaldi.

4.1 Human Genetics: Meaning, scope and branches, its relationship with other sciences.
4.2 Methods for the study of genetic principles in man-family study (Pedigree analysis, Twin study, Foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, Immunological method, D.N.A. technology.
4.3 Mendelian Genetics in man-family study, single factor, multi factor, polygenic inheritance in man, concept of genetic polymorphism and selection. Mendelian populations- Hardy-Weinberg Law, Inbreeding, Genetic Load, Genetic implications of Consanguineous and cousin marriages.
4.4 Chromosomes and Chromosomal aberrations in man; Genetic counseling.

5. Concept of Race: Race and racism, racial classification; Ethnic groups of mankind:- characteristics and distribution.

6. Ecological Anthropology: Concept and methods; Bio-cultural adaptation.

7.1 Human Growth and Development: Concept and factors affecting growth and development, methods of growth studies.
7.2 Biological and Socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

8. Applications of Physical Anthropology and Human Genetics.

9.1 Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology: Broad outlines of prehistoric cultures- i. Palaeolithic, ii. Mesolithic, iii. Neolithic, iv. Chalcolithic, v. Copper-Bronze age.
9.2 Dating Methods: Relative and Absolute.

10.1 The Nature of Culture: Concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.
10.2 The nature of society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social Groups; and Social Stratification.
10.3 Marriage: Definition and Universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy); Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (Preferential); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
10.4 Family, Household and Domestic Group: Definition and universality; functions and Types (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization.
10.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilaterial, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (Lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory).

11. Economic Organization: Meaning, Scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing Production, Distribution and Exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market) in communities subsisting on hunting and gathering fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, Horticulture andAgriculture.

12. Political Organization: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, Authority, Legitimacy; Social Control, Law and justice in simple societies.

13. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional) monotheism and polytheism; myths and rituals; forms of magico-religious beliefs in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturalism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished, magico religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

14. Anthropological theories:
i. Classical evolutionism-Tylor, Morgan and Frazer.
ii. Diffusionism- British, German andAmerican.
iii. Functionalism- Malinowski, Structural functionalism- Radcliffe- Brown.
iv. Structuralism- Levi-Strauss.
v. Culture and Personality- Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du-Bois.
vi. Neo-evolutionism- Childe, White, Steward.
vii. Cultural Materialism (Harris).

15.1 Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology: Field work tradition in anthropology; Distinction between technique, method and methodology; Tools of Data collection- Observation, Interview, Schedule, Questionnaire, Case history, Case study and Genealogy; Secondary sources of information.
15.2 Controlled comparison and cross cultural study.

Anthropology – PAPER-II

1. Emergence and Development of the Indian Culture and Civilization: Prehistoric (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic); Protohistoric (Indus Civilization).
2. Demographic profile of India: Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution.
3. The structure and function of traditional social system: Vernasharam, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
4. Caste system in India: Structure and characteristics; Varna and Caste, Dominant Caste, Caste mobility, Jajmani system,Tribe-caste continuum.
5. Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
6. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society including tribals.
7. Emergence, growth and development of anthropology in India: contribution of early Scholars-Administrators. Contribution of IndianAnthropologists toTribal- Caste studies.
8. Aspect of Indian Village: Social, economic, polity and religion, Changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations. Sanskritization, Westernization and Modernization. Panchayati Raj and Social change.
9.1 Tribal situation in India: Linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the Tribal populations and their distribution, Bio-genetic variability.
9.2 Problems of tribal communities: Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, health and nutrition.
9.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation, New forest policy and tribals. Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on tribal populations.
10.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
10.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measure on tribals and weaker sections and women participation.
10.3 The concept of Ethnicity: Ethnic conflicts and political developments, Unrest among tribal communities; Pseudo-tribalism; Social change among the tribes during colonial and post independent India.
11. History of Administration of Tribal Areas: Tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation.
12. Role of N.G.O. in tribal development.
13. Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.