Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist Examination
HYDROGEOLOGY 200 Marks
Section A: Origin, occurrence and distribution of water.
Water on earth; Types of water — meteoric, juvenile, magmatic and sea water; Hydrological Cycle and its components; Water balance; Water-bearing properties of rocks — porosity, permeability, specific yield and specific retention; Vertical distribution of water; Zone of aeration and zone of saturation; Classification of rocks according to their water-bearing properties; Aquifers; Classification of aquifers; Concepts of drainage basins and groundwater basins; Aquifer parameters- transrnissivity and storage coefficient; Water table and piezometric surface; Fluctuations of water table and piezometric surface;
Barometric and tidal efficiencies; Water table contour maps; Hydrographs; Springs; Geologic and geomorphic controls on groundwater; Hydrostratigraphic units;Groundwater provinces of India. Hydrogeology of arid zones of India;Hydrogeology of wet lands.
Section B: Groundwater Hydraulics
Theory of groundwater flow; Darcy’s law and its applications; Determination of permeability in laboratory and in field; Flow through aquifers; steady, unsteady and radial flow conditions; Evaluation of aquifer parameters of confined, semi-confined and unconfined °aquifers -Thiem, Thies, Jacob and Walton’s methods; Groundwater modelling.
Section C: Groundwater Exploration and Water Well Construction
Geologic and hydrogeologic methods of exploration; Role of remote sensing in groundwater exploration; Hydrogeomorphic and lineament ‘napping; Surface geophysical methods — seismic, gravity, geo-electrical and magnetic methods; Types of water wells and methods of construction; Design, development, maintenance and revitalization of wells; Sub-surface geophysical methods; Yield characteristics of wells; Pumping tests- methods, data analysis and interpretation;
Section D : Groundwater Qua lit y
Physical and chemical properties of water; Quality criteria for different uses; Graphical presentation of groundwater quality data; Groundwater quality in different provinces in India; Groundwater contamination; natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic contaminants; Saline water intrusion; Radio-isotopes in hydroLteological studies.
Section E: Groundwater Management
Groundwater problems related to foundation work, mining, canals and tunnels; Over-exploitation of groundwater and groundwater mining; Groundwater problems in urban areas; Ground water management in arid and semi arid areas; Climate change impact on graoundwater resources; Concept of sustainable development of groundwater resources; Groundwater management —supply side and demand side management; Rainwater harvesting and managed aquifer recharge; Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater; Groundwater legislation.